Define and describe REM sleep and explain how it differs from NREM sleep.

Assignment: Sleep and Sleep Disorders

Sleep is a necessary biological process, even if we do not yet fully understand why it is necessary. Humans will spend about one-third of their lives asleep. Although many people proudly proclaim how little sleep they got the previous night, research continuously demonstrates the negative impact of sleep deprivation on cognitive function and overall health. There is currently a movement to measure, quantify, and optimize sleep, but some researchers argue that the fixation on getting the “best” sleep may just lessen the quality of sleep.

There are many types of sleep disorders that affect different parts of the night’s sleep. Sleep can be broken down into Non-Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) and Rapid Eye Movement (REM) phases. NREM sleep disorders, including sleepwalking and night terrors, occur during the NREM stages. REM sleep disorders, the most common of which is REM Behavior Disorder, occur during REM sleep and involve the sleeper physically acting out their dreams. Other disorders involve dysfunction of the circadian rhythm, making it difficult for the individual to maintain a regular sleep-wake cycle. One of the most widely known sleep disorders is insomnia. There are many treatments including biological approaches, such as sleep hygiene, and pharmacological approaches, such as sleeping pills.

For this Assignment, you will write a 4- to 5-page APA-style paper about sleep and sleep disorders. You will include the stages of sleep, how people cycle through those NREM sleep and REM sleep stages each night, and biological and pharmaceutical means commonly used to treat sleep deprivation. Finally, you will identify a common sleep disorder and discuss the biological basis of the disorder as well as how it is treated.

To prepare:

  • Review this week’s Learning Resources about sleep and sleep disorders.
  • Select a sleep disorder, other than insomnia, and research its neurologic basis and common treatments.
  • Conduct additional research as necessary to support your Assignment and be prepared to properly cite all of the sources used in the preparation of your Assignment.

By Day 7

In a 4- to 5-page APA-style paper, address the following:

  • Define the stages of NREM sleep and describe how clinicians identify its different stages.
  • Define and describe REM sleep and explain how it differs from NREM sleep.
  • Provide an overview of how a person cycles through the stages during the course of a night’s sleep.
  • Describe at least one effect of sleep deprivation on the body and on the brain.
  • Then, explain what is meant by sleep hygiene and whether it is effective. Describe how sleeping pills interact with the brain regions that promote sleep and wakefulness you described in the Discussion.
  • Identify the sleep disorder you selected and describe its neurologic basis. Describe common treatments for the disorder, including how the treatments work and their efficacy.

Support your Assignment with specific references to all resources used in its preparation. You are to provide a reference list for all resources, including those in the Learning Resources for this course.Zero plagiarizing, Quote work, No.com’s

Required Readings

Beil, L. (2018). The clean cycle. Science News, 194(2), 22–26.

Breedlove, S. M., & Watson, N. V. (2019). Behavioral neuroscience (9th ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

  • Chapter 14, “Biological Rhythms, Sleep, and Dreaming”

Cronin-Golomb, A. (2016). Great nature’s second course: Introduction to the special issue on the behavioral neuroscience of sleep. Behavioral Neuroscience, 130(3), 267–270. doi:10.1037/bne0000147

Kelly, R. M., Healy, U., Sreenan, S., McDermott, J. H., & Coogan, A. N. (2018). Clocks in the clinic: circadian rhythms in health and disease. Postgraduate Medical Journal, 94(1117), 653–658. doi:10.1136/postgradmedj-2018-135719

Shokri-Kojori, E., Wang, G.-J., Wiers, C. E., Demiral, S. B., Guo, M., Kim, S. W., … Volkow, N. D. (2018). β-Amyloid accumulation in the human brain after one night of sleep deprivation. PNAS Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 115(17), 4483–4488. doi:10.1073/pnas.17216941154488.

Sie, M. (2013). An update on sleep disorders and their treatment. Progress in Neurology and Psychiatry, 17(5), 15–23. doi:10.1002/pnp.299
An update on sleep disorders and their treatment by Sie, M., in Progress in Neurology and Psychiatry, Vol. 15/Issue 5. Copyright 2013 by Wiley Interface Inc. Reprinted by permission of Wiley Interface Inc via the Copyright Clearance Center.

Walker, M. P., & van der Helm, E. (2009). Overnight therapy? The role of sleep in emotional brain processing. Psychological Bulletin, 135(5), 731–748.

Xie, L., Kang, H., Chen, M. J., Liao, Y., Thiyagarajan, M., O’Donnell, J.,. . . Nedergaard, M. (2013). Sleep drives metabolite clearance from the adult brain. Science, 342(6156), 373–377. doi:10.1126/science.1241224
Sleep drives metabolite clearance from the adult brain by Xie, L, in Science, Vol. 342/Issue 6156. Copyright 2013 by American Association for the Advancement of Science. Reprinted by permission of American Association for the Advancement of Science via the Copyright Clearance Center.

Required Media

Foster, R. (2013, June). Russell Foster: Why do we sleep? [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.ted.com/talks/russell_foster_why_do_we…
Note: The length of this media is approximately 22 minutes.

Galicia, E. (2015). What is sleep? [Video file]. Retrieved from
Note: The length of this media is approximately 5 minutes.

Marcu, S. (2013, January). Shai Marcu: The benefits of a good night’s sleep [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.ted.com/talks/shai_marcu_the_benefits_…
Note: The length of this media is approximately 6 minutes.

Sinauer Associates, Inc. (Producer). (n.d). Biological rhythms. Available from https://www.bn8e.com/

  • Animation 14.2 with your textbook

Note: The length of this media is approximately 5 minutes.

Sinauer Associates, Inc. (Producer). (n.d.). Sleep mechanisms. Available from https://www.bn8e.com/

  • Activity 14.2 with your textbook

Note: The length of this media is approximately 4 minutes.

Walker, M. (2019, April). Matt Walker: Sleep is your superpower. [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.ted.com/talks/matt_walker_sleep_is_you…
Note: The length of this media is approximately 19 minutes.

Optional Resources

Optional Readings

Akintomide, G. S., & Rickards, H. (2011). Narcolepsy: A review. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, (1), 507–518. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21931493
Note: You will access this resource through the Walden Library databases.

Schumpeter: Sleepless in Silicon Valley. (2019). Economist, 431(9143), 59.
Note: You will access this resource through the Walden Library databases.

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